A urine test strip is a basic diagnostic instrument used to determine pathological changes in the urine in standard urinalysis (urine analysis).  A standard urine test strip may comprise of up to 12 different chemical pads or reagents which react (change color) when immersed in, and then removed from, a urine sample. The test can be read between 60 and 120 seconds after dipping.  Routine testing of the urine with multi-parameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases.

The most common urine dip strips are the:

Diseases Identified with a Urine Test Strip

With the aid of routine examinations early symptoms of the following three groups are identified:

  • Diseases of the kidneys and the urinary tract
  • Carbohydrate metabolism disorders (diabetes mellitus)
  • Liver diseases and haemolytic disorders

Diseases of the kidneys and urinary tract

Screening parameters:

  • Leukocytes - Known as Leukocyturia
  • Nitrite - Known as Nitrituria
  • Protein - Known as Proteinuria also see Albuminuria and Microalbuminuria
  • Blood - Known as Hematuria

Many renal and urinary tract diseases may be asymptomatic for a long period of time. Routine urinalysis is recommended as a basic yet fundamental step in identifying renal damage and / or urinary tract disease at an early stage, especially in high risk populations such as diabetics, the hypertensive, African Americans, Polynesians, and those with a family history.1

Specific kidney & urinary tract diseases able to be identified

Chronic kidney disease, Glomerulonephritis, Pyelonephritis, Cystitis, Kidney Stones

Carbohydrate metabolism disorders

  • Glucose - Identified ay Glycosuria
  • Ketones - Identified as Ketonuria (also see ketoacidosis and ketosis)

Around 30-40% of type I diabetics and around 20% of type II diabetics suffer in time from a nephropathy, and early recognition of diabetes is therefore of major significance for the further state of health of these patients.

Specific carbohydrate metabolism disorders able to be identified: Diabetes Mellitus

Liver diseases and haemolytic disorders

  • Urobilinogen - Identified as Urobilinogenuria
  • Bilirubin - Identified as Bilirubinuria

In many liver diseases the patients often show signs of pathology only at a late stage. Early diagnosis allows appropriate therapeutic measures to be instituted in good time, avoiding consequential damage and further infections.

Specific liver diseases and haemolytic disorders able to be identified:Liver Disease, (accompanied by Jaundice), Cirrhosis

Detection limit

The detection limit of a test is that concentration, at which the test starts to turn from negative to positive. Although the detection limit may vary between urine samples, the detection limit is defined as that concentration of the analyte which results in a positive reaction in 90 percent of the examined urines.

Parameter Reference Range Practical Detection Limit
Specific Gravity

Reference range

Physiological range
1.016 - 1.022

1.002 - 1.035

Range: 1.000 - 1.030

pH value

First morning urine

During the day

5 - 6

4.8 - 7.4

Range: 5 - 9


Reference range

Grey zone

< 10 Leu/µl

10 - 20 Leu/µl

10-25 Leu/µl



0.05 mg/dl (11 µmol/l)



< 2 mg/dl
6 mg/dl


First morning urine

During the day

< 20 mg/dl

< 30 mg/dl

40 mg/dl (2.2 mmol/l)


Acetoacetic acid


< 5 mg/dl


5 mg/dl (0.5 mmol/l)

40 mg/dl (7 mmol/l)


< 1 mg/dl

0.4 mg/dl (7µmol/l)


< 0.2 mg/dl

0.5 mg/dl (9µmol/l)




0 - 5 Ery/µl


5 Ery/µl

0.03 mg/dl Hb

A urine collection device or UCD is a device that allows the collection of urine for analysis (as in medical or forensic urinalysis) or for purposes of simple elimination (as in vehicles engaged in long voyages and not equipped with toilets, particularly aircraft and spacecraft). UCDs of the latter type are sometimes called piddle packs.

Buy Urine Collection Cups


A urine collection device is a simple utensil that allows an individual to empty his or her bladder into a container hygienically and without spilling urine.

UCDs for urinalysis

Special UCDs exist for the collection of urine samples for subsequent urinalysis. They range from a simple plastic cup to elaborate devices designed to collect specific volumes or types of urine samples at various points in the micturition process.  Two of the most popular urine collection devices are the urine beaker cup and the urine cup with screw lid.

A related type of device is used for urine collection in bedridden and unconscious patients. This type of UCD usually includes a catheter inserted directly into the urethra of the patient in order to collect all urine as it is produced or whenever micturition occurs.

UCDs for elimination

A common use of UCDs is in military fighter aircraft. Small aircraft such as fighter planes are not equipped with toilets, but pilots are sometimes required to fly them for several hours continuously. Since most people produce enough urine to fill their bladders after only a few hours under normal conditions, some method must be provided to allow a pilot to empty his bladder without leaving his seat in the cockpit. A UCD makes this possible. UCDs are also used on spacecraft and occasionally in other vehicles, for the same reasons.

A typical UCD consists of a small container with a dehydrated sponge inside, connected to a tube which in turn is connected to a funnel-like orifice that is adapted to the user's anatomy (different designs are used for men as compared to women). The user simply holds the funnel near or on his penis or her vulva, as the case may be, and urinates into the tube, with the collected urine saturating the sponge (which may be impregnated with disinfectants and odor-control substances) and filling the container. UCDs are designed to be used in cramped quarters without requiring that the user rise from his seated position in the cockpit. In most cases, the user wears special clothing that can easily be opened to permit use of the UCD (e.g., special zippers in flight suits).

See Urine Specimen Cup for more information on urine collection cups.